A 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework

Learn about the 2X2 achievement goal framework and understand a better way to view (and plan) your goals. What is the 2×2 achievement goal framework? Until 2001, when this study was published, goals were divided into three types: mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance: Mastery Performance-Approach Performance-Avoidance I will score higher than last time. I will score … Read more

The Relationship of Procrastination With a Mastery Goal Versus an Avoidance Goal

Goals can be classified into many different dimensions. One of the most popular models is the 2×2, approach vs. avoidance vs. mastery vs. performance model:   Approach Avoidance Mastery Mastery-Approach Mastery-Avoidance Performance Performance-Approach Performance-Avoidance   To better understand what each of these dimensions mean, you can read this page on goal setting or this study which … Read more

Performance and Learning Goals for Emotion Regulation

In an attempt to feel better after experiencing negative emotion, different people use different strategies. Some talk about their problems with others, other try to distract themselves from thinking those negative thoughts, others try to find something positive from the experience. There are two strategies which people can use on their own, without help from … Read more

Goal Setting

[Properly set] goals have been shown to increase performance on well over 100 different tasks involving more than 40,000 participants in at least eight countries working in laboratory, simulation, and field settings. The dependent variables have included quantity, quality, time spent, costs, job behavior measures, and more. The time spans have ranged from 1 minute … Read more

Grit: Perseverance and Passion for Long-Term Goals

Across six studies, the authors of this article attempted to prove the predictive validity of a new questionnaire which they created, the Grit Scale. In the first study, grittier adults were more likely to have attained a higher level of education. In addition, grit was shown to increase with age, although because this study was … Read more

Self-Discipline Gives Girls the Edge: Gender in Self-Discipline, Grades, and Achievement Test Scores

Do girls achieve better than boys when it comes to self-discipline, grades and achievement? Using the same data as in this study, the idea that girls have higher average levels of self-discipline than boys were tested and confirmed. Adolescent girls were found to have 5 to 20% more self-control than adolescent boys, explaining in part why they do … Read more