Author Archives: H H

The owner of Happier Human is Steve Scott. Steve is an author who is also the owner of the popular blog DevelopGoodHabits.com. Steve has long been interested in positive psychology and specifically its applications to increase happiness.


A 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework

Learn about the 2X2 achievement goal framework and understand a better way to view (and plan) your goals. What is the 2×2 achievement goal framework? Until 2001, when this study was published, goals were divided into three types: mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance: Mastery Performance-Approach Performance-Avoidance I will score higher than last time. I will score […]

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The Relationship of Procrastination With a Mastery Goal Versus an Avoidance Goal

Goals can be classified into many different dimensions. One of the most popular models is the 2×2, approach vs. avoidance vs. mastery vs. performance model:   Approach Avoidance Mastery Mastery-Approach Mastery-Avoidance Performance Performance-Approach Performance-Avoidance   To better understand what each of these dimensions mean, you can read this page on goal setting or this study which […]

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Performance and Learning Goals for Emotion Regulation

In an attempt to feel better after experiencing negative emotion, different people use different strategies. Some talk about their problems with others, other try to distract themselves from thinking those negative thoughts, others try to find something positive from the experience. There are two strategies which people can use on their own, without help from […]

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Child Achievement and Problem-Solving: Two Experimental Studies

What goal types are most effective for encouraging performance and happiness in children? In this study, two personality variables and three experimental conditions were investigated. Those with a high motive to achieve success performed better and reported higher satisfaction and happiness than those with a high motive to avoid failure. In addition, those with a […]

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Goal Setting

[Properly set] goals have been shown to increase performance on well over 100 different tasks involving more than 40,000 participants in at least eight countries working in laboratory, simulation, and field settings. The dependent variables have included quantity, quality, time spent, costs, job behavior measures, and more. The time spans have ranged from 1 minute […]

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